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Projects / Programmes source: ARIS

Assessment of the success of reafforestation with sawing and planting in Slovenia

Research activity

Code Science Field Subfield
4.01.01  Biotechnical sciences  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Forest - forestry 

Code Science Field
B430  Biomedical sciences  Sylviculture, forestry, forestry technology 

Code Science Field
4.01  Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences  Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 
Keywords
reforestation, forest management planning, seedling quality, catalogue of measures, protocols
Evaluation (rules)
source: COBISS
Researchers (20)
no. Code Name and surname Research area Role Period No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  29875  Marko Bajc  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Technical associate  2018 - 2021  286 
2.  14869  PhD Gregor Božič  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2018 - 2021  512 
3.  50519  PhD Ana Brglez  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Junior researcher  2018 - 2021  114 
4.  29092  PhD Maarten De Groot  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2018 - 2021  726 
5.  21242  PhD Tine Grebenc  Plant production  Researcher  2018 - 2021  498 
6.  28855  Melita Hrenko    Technical associate  2018 - 2021  43 
7.  29831  Špela Jagodic    Technical associate  2018 - 2021  329 
8.  33222  PhD Andreja Kavčič  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2018 - 2021  1,045 
9.  05093  PhD Marko Kovač  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2018 - 2021  358 
10.  07127  PhD Hojka Kraigher  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Head  2018 - 2021  1,345 
11.  24268  PhD Tanja Mrak  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2018 - 2021  136 
12.  23448  PhD Nikica Ogris  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2018 - 2021  1,229 
13.  25448  PhD Barbara Piškur  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2018 - 2021  1,012 
14.  53018  Peter Smolnikar    Technical associate  2019 - 2021  223 
15.  53989  Nina Šramel    Technical associate  2020  192 
16.  54070  David Štefanič    Technical associate  2020 - 2021  13 
17.  24777  Barbara Štupar    Technical associate  2018 - 2021  29 
18.  38188  PhD Tina Unuk Nahberger  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Junior researcher  2018 - 2020  56 
19.  24343  PhD Marjana Westergren  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2018 - 2021  418 
20.  28401  PhD Peter Železnik  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2018 - 2021  188 
Organisations (1)
no. Code Research organisation City Registration number No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  0404  Slovenian Forestry Institute  Ljubljana  5051673000  12,268 
Abstract
Reforestation with planting and sawing is, in the short term, among all forestry measures by far the most expensive measure, which limits its implementation, and the decisions about such forest reforestation must be thoroughly thought out. Due to the long lifespan and the reproductive biology of forest trees, decisions taken at the time of reforestation of forests that we accept today is of crucial importance, as all later "repairs" would only be possible with substantial financial and labour inputs. Unsuccessful or inappropriate reforestation / regeneration can also lead to the destruction of forest stands and changes in their long-term stability and growth. In this perspective, forest reforestation or regeneration is no longer the most expensive measure! Since 1995, there have been three large-scale ice-sleets in Slovenia, three major fires, three wind throws and at least one snow-brake or large proportions. Through these large scale disturbances (without the last windthrows) 2,000 ha of forests were destroyed and 950,000 ha heavily damaged. Furthermore some long-lasting droughts in 2003 and after 2014 have lead to large scale heavy bark beetle gradations. In such conditions natural regeneration of degraded areas is not sufficient to provide services within the desired timeframe, which the forests provide. An important part of the project is the analysis of the current forest reforestation with planting and sawing. We shall examine the extent of seedlings planned and used regarding the areas and in financial terms and provide an indicative assessment of the impact of planting on the development of forests. An important factor in assessing the performance so far is the analysis of the success of planting or the survival of the seedlings, since the effectiveness of artificial restoration depends on many factors. Factors of living nature, such as game, many pathogenic organisms, bacteria, insects and other harmful organisms, and factors of non-living nature, have a significant impact. The project will analyze the performance at selected forest sites. We shall also analyze fructification in areas of major natural disasters in the last 25 years. The acquired knowledge and measures to reduce damage to seedlings and natural regeneration centers will be included in the updated guidelines as recommendations for forest owners, forest nurseries and professionals within the public forestry service, who are responsible for planting and tending of the young forest. The objectives of the project are: • to evaluate the success of reforestation with planting and sawing in Slovenian forests in the last 25 years (share in the total regeneration, the success of the the efforts in terms of invested resources, the impact on the achievement of forestry goals), • to prepare the methodology for deciding on the extent of reforestation with planting and sawing in the forest at the level of forest management plans, separately for regular silviculture and for reforestation after large scale disturbances according to the appropriateness of tree species and the type of seedlings used, • to elaborate detailed criteria in seedling quality assessment procedures, • to compare the health condition of the seedlings with natural regeneration in comparable sites, • to identify the most important harmful organisms that damage the seedlings in the forests and prepare instructions for their identification, • to prepare a catalogue of measures to prevent or reduce damage to seedlings caused by harmful organisms, and to assess the appropriateness of existing measures to protect seedlings, • to prepare detailed instructions for handling seedlings at different stages from nurseries to planting, and • to establish cooperation between researchers and laboratories for determining certain harmful organisms of seedlings in shrubs (participating organizations, especially the National institute of Biology and the Slovenian Agricultural Institute, will be involved with consulta
Significance for science
"The Slovenian Forestry School" objectives of sustainable, close to nature and multifunctional forest management are based primarily on natural reforestation of stands. In times of rapid climate change, the consequences of which are increasingly frequent (abiotic and biotic), in order to ensure success and adequate quality of forests, it is also necessary to combine natural reforestation with planting and / or sowing. The development of the desired properties of trees depends on the provenance, the growth site in the growing area, and the related silvicultural measures in the development of the plant. The restoration of the forest with planting or sawing is in the short term by far the most expensive measure among all forestry measures, which limits its implementation, and the decisions about such forest restoration must be thoroughly thought out. In the case of properly implemented natural regeneration and with sufficient number of trees involved in reproduction, genetic diversity is inherited in the new generation of trees, including properties that increase survival, growth and further adaptation of the population to changes in the environment. The flexibility and ability to adapt under certain environmental conditions was established with provenance trials and by tracing the fate of forest reproductive material (FRM) after planting in stands. Assuming that the seedlings are of the appropriate origin, both the physiological properties of the seedlings (freshness, resistance, nutrition, root system, general vitality) as well as morphological properties, diseases and pests, and plant protection measures, are important for the success of afforestation. Within the project we shall contribute to knowledge increase and to development of professional bases for different silvicultural measures in Slovenia and in the wider area.
Significance for the country
In order to ensure the cultivation and use of high-quality, genetically diverse and site-adapted forest reproductive material (FRM), forest seed and nursery management is regulated by the Act on Forest Reproductive Material (ZGRM, 2002, 2004, 2011) following the European Regulation on the marketing of FRM (1999/105 / EC) and subordinate regulations. In addition to the appropriate legislative framework, the successful implementation of reforestation with planting and sawing requires locally developed seed and nurseries companies and an appropriate financial framework.   Since 1995, there were three large-scale ice-sleets in Slovenia, three fires, three windthrows and one snow-break of larger proportions. In these disasters, 2,000 ha of forests were destroyed by 2017 and 950,000 ha damaged. In the years 2003 and 2014 the drough and large-scale disturbances lead also to gradation of bark beetles. In such circumstances, the natural regeneration of degraded areas is insufficient to provide services within the desired timeframe. Forest management brings in the monetary sense about EUR 140 million for timber products, and between 230 million and 380 million for other production and other forest services, and it increasingly requires reaforestation with sawing and planting. The longevity of forest tree species can not be adapted sufficiently and quickly enough merely based on the transmission of genetic information through natural regeneration. Particularly problematic are the areas where the reproductive parts of crowns were damaged within the entire population, which is supposed to provide natural reforestation, and among minority tree species.   Within the framework of the project, we will prepare several guidelines, directions, catalogues andpropose some amendments to the existing regulations, all in order to contribute to the continuous conservation and use of all functions of forests and their goods and services.
Most important scientific results Annual report 2018, 2019, 2020
Most important socioeconomically and culturally relevant results Annual report 2018, 2019, 2020
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