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Projects / Programmes source: ARIS

Biokemijska in biofizikalno-kemijska karakterizacija naravnih snovi (Slovene)

Periods
Research activity

Code Science Field Subfield
4.03.00  Biotechnical sciences  Plant production   
1.05.00  Natural sciences and mathematics  Biochemistry and molecular biology   
1.04.00  Natural sciences and mathematics  Chemistry   

Code Science Field
T430  Technological sciences  Food and drink technology 
Keywords
natural substances, phenolic compounds, transport and volumetric phenomena, colligative properties, arhea, halocins, enzymes, additives, antimicrobials, antioxidants
Evaluation (rules)
source: COBISS
Researchers (21)
no. Code Name and surname Research area Role Period No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  01522  PhD Veronika Abram  Biochemistry and molecular biology  Head  2004 - 2008  309 
2.  07028  PhD Helena Abramovič  Plant production  Researcher  2005 - 2008  256 
3.  18132  PhD Barbara Čeh  Biotechnical sciences  Researcher  2006 - 2008  712 
4.  25518  PhD Miha Črnigoj  Pharmacy  Junior researcher  2005 - 2008  44 
5.  15840  PhD Marjan Donko  Biotechnology  Researcher  2004  32 
6.  28507  PhD Dejan Gmajner  Biochemistry and molecular biology  Junior researcher  2008  17 
7.  17797  Andreja Habjan    Technical associate  2004 - 2008 
8.  25519  PhD Jaka Horvat  Biotechnology  Junior researcher  2005 - 2007  72 
9.  06986  PhD Milica Kač  Chemistry  Researcher  2004 - 2008  251 
10.  00177  PhD Florijan Klofutar  Chemistry  Researcher  2005 - 2008  428 
11.  23483  PhD Enej Kuščer  Biotechnology  Junior researcher  2004 - 2007  37 
12.  25521  PhD Urška Lešnik  Biotechnology  Junior researcher  2005 - 2008  31 
13.  07494  PhD Dušica Majer  Plant production  Researcher  2005  248 
14.  17798  Jana Martinuč    Technical associate  2004 - 2008 
15.  22493  PhD Igor Milek  Biochemistry and molecular biology  Researcher  2004  14 
16.  15650  PhD Lea Pogačnik  Chemistry  Researcher  2005 - 2008  294 
17.  10873  PhD Nataša Poklar Ulrih  Chemistry  Researcher  2004 - 2008  833 
18.  09633  PhD Darja Rudan-Tasič  Chemistry  Researcher  2004 - 2008  135 
19.  08384  PhD Nataša Šegatin  Chemistry  Researcher  2005 - 2008  135 
20.  29436  PhD Petra Terpinc  Plant production  Junior researcher  2008  107 
21.  19641  Mateja Vidmar    Technical associate  2004 - 2008  18 
Organisations (2)
no. Code Research organisation City Registration number No. of publicationsNo. of publications
1.  0416  Slovenian Institute of Hop Research and Brewing  Žalec  5051762000  4,269 
2.  0481  University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty  Ljubljana  1626914  66,743 
Abstract
One part of the research will deal with phenolic compounds. This group of secondary metabolites comprises many compounds and it looks that a plant has a characteristic profile of them. A content of phenolic compounds can increase after a plant has been exposed to changes in the environment. The induced biosynthesis of phenolic compounds can be followed by increased activity of certain enzymes involved either in the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and/or their degradation. Considering the phenolic compounds two oxidoreductases, polyphenol oxidases and peroxidases, are important. In an intact plant cell phenolic compounds are locally separated from the two enzymes and only after a cell has been damaged they come into contact and some reactions get started. Both enzymes catalyze oxidation of phenolic compounds to very reactive quinones and their further polymerisation to products of characteristically brown colour. Different elicitors can induce biosynthesis of certain phenolic compounds and some of them can have an antimicrobial effect. Due to this, plants can become more resistant to different microorganisms. Some phenolic compounds will be isolated, identified and possibly studied for their role in chosen plants. The selected plants could be considered as an interesting agricultural residue of antimicrobial compounds and antioxidants. As for other plants there is a possibility that phenolic compounds and/or their oxidative enzymes could be used as biochemical markers of their quality. This would be a base to develop biosensors which are becoming more and more interesting because of their great selectivity and speed of reaction. The biosensors developed so far, work on a base of immobilized polyphenol oxidase that catalyses oxidation of polyphenols. Our intention is to develop an optical biosensor for the detection of phenolic compounds in different sources and to compare this new method with the already established routine methods in our lab. Phenolic compounds can be used as additives in food industry. The use of additives gives numerous technological and economical advantages to food producers e.g. development of new products, better quality of the existing ones, extended shelf-life, favourable change in the structure, texture and taste as well as in visual perception of foods. Physico-chemical characteristics of these technologically and biologically important compounds are important in designing industrial processes regarding quality, control and storage parameters. Among the additives, which are categorized regarding their use, we will focus mainly on those responsible for the stabilization of products (like antioxidants, synergists and complexants, emulgators and thickeners) and on those influencing taste, especially on non-caloric sweeteners. The obtained thermodynamic parameters will be correlated to basic tastes (sweetness, astringency). The results will be useful also for testing systems in electronic recognition of basic tastes (electronical language) The other part of the research will deal with archea, mainly with thermophilic and halophilic representatives of these organisms. Archea are interesting because they have adapted to life in the extreme conditions like extreme temperature and salinity. They are known to possess, among others, different structure of the membranes, cell walls, as well as specific rRNA motif. Adaptivity to extreme temperatures will be studied on Aeropyrum pernix (a strictly aerobic hyperthermophilic archea). We intend to characterize the organism as a whole as well as some of its cell components by the diffential scanning calorimetry. Some enzymes, which could be interesting due to their extreme thermal stability for biotechnological processes, will be isolated from this archea. We propose to use extracellular proteinases from A. pernix to degradate aggregates of the prion type. Additionally, we intend to search for possible substances with antimicrobial activity in A. pernix.
Significance for science
The results of the study on alpha-synuclein (involved in Parkinson’s disease) have shown that the long-range intramolecular interactions are likely to be crucial to the fibrillation process. The article was published in the journal with IF 4.0. Second important result is a fluorescent method developed with optical fibres for quantification of lipids covering the oral surface after ingestion of fatty foods. The article was published in the top journal of the research field (J. Agric. Food Chem.). Knowing structural changes in membranes of hyperthermophylic areheon , which grow in extreme conditions is necessary for better understanding of such organisms and it has a potential of future use in food industry. Correlating structure of selected artificial sweeteners with the taste of the compounds have not only scientific but also industrial value for the development of new products.
Significance for the country
Herbs are widely used in medicine, food consumption and cosmetics. They can be act as colorants and aromas. Many of them are appreciated for their positive effect on human health due to their antioxidant activity, digestion or their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antimutagenic and anticancerogenic effect. Teas and herbal infusions are used in Slovenia for long time and their analysis is important for our area. We investigated how drying, storage and drink preparation effect antioxidant activity, content of vitamin C and content of polyphenols. Results of our work are important for the development in Slovenia in the same way as they are important for the world. In our research some researchers from other institutions are involved and the results of our research are interesting for transfer to industry.
Most important scientific results Final report, complete report on dLib.si
Most important socioeconomically and culturally relevant results Final report, complete report on dLib.si
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