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Projects / Programmes source: ARRS

Carbon dynamics in forest soils and the rhizosphere

Research activity

Code Science Field Subfield
4.01.01  Biotechnical sciences  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Forest - forestry 

Code Science Field
B003  Biomedical sciences  Ecology 

Code Science Field
4.01  Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences  Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 
Keywords
carbon dynamics, forest soils, fine roots, mycorrhiza, turnover, wood decomposition, modelling, reporting
Evaluation (rules)
source: COBISS
Researchers (41)
no. Code Name and surname Research area Role Period No. of publications
1.  29875  Marko Bajc  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Technician  2011 - 2014  273 
2.  28487  PhD Martina Burnik Šturm  Geology  Junior researcher  2011  62 
3.  28856  PhD Gabrielle I. Deckmyn  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2011 - 2014  48 
4.  24416  PhD Klemen Eler  Biology  Researcher  2011 - 2014  281 
5.  29164  PhD Mitja Ferlan  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2013 - 2014  208 
6.  28478  PhD Marinka Gams Petrišič  Control and care of the environment  Researcher  2011 - 2013  44 
7.  32936  Samo Grbec  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Technician  2011 - 2013  14 
8.  21242  PhD Tine Grebenc  Plant production  Researcher  2011 - 2014  456 
9.  22609  PhD Jožica Gričar  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2011 - 2014  500 
10.  28855  Melita Hrenko    Technician  2011 - 2014 
11.  19106  PhD Miha Humar  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2011 - 2014  1,197 
12.  03310  PhD Zvonka Jeran  Control and care of the environment  Researcher  2011 - 2014  265 
13.  27585  PhD Jernej Jorgačevski  Medical sciences  Researcher  2012 - 2014  169 
14.  27605  PhD Milan Kobal  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2011 - 2014  339 
15.  05093  PhD Marko Kovač  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2011 - 2014  351 
16.  07127  PhD Hojka Kraigher  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Principal Researcher  2011 - 2014  1,297 
17.  17034  PhD Nike Krajnc  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2011 - 2013  919 
18.  17333  Robert Krajnc    Technician  2012 - 2013  54 
19.  15666  PhD Marko Kreft  Neurobiology  Researcher  2011 - 2014  669 
20.  11595  PhD Tomislav Levanič  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2011 - 2014  596 
21.  33614  Žiga Lipar    Technician  2011 - 2013 
22.  29237  PhD Boštjan Mali  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2011 - 2013  174 
23.  11279  PhD Nives Ogrinc  Control and care of the environment  Researcher  2011 - 2014  1,042 
24.  19950  MSc Mitja Piškur  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2011 - 2013  368 
25.  21390  PhD Maja Potokar  Medical sciences  Researcher  2011 - 2014  152 
26.  29428  PhD Peter Prislan  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2013 - 2014  305 
27.  32900  PhD Nataša Radić  Medical sciences  Researcher  2012  36 
28.  17336  Matej Rupel    Technician  2011 - 2014  71 
29.  10264  PhD Primož Simončič  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2011 - 2014  680 
30.  27789  Iztok Sinjur    Technician  2011 - 2014  290 
31.  15467  PhD Matjaž Stenovec  Medical sciences  Researcher  2012 - 2014  199 
32.  32771  PhD Ines Štraus  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Junior researcher  2011 - 2014  51 
33.  24777  Barbara Štupar    Technician  2011 - 2014  29 
34.  33332  PhD Samo Tamše  Control and care of the environment  Junior researcher  2011 - 2014  25 
35.  33176  PhD Nejc Thaler  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Junior researcher  2011 - 2014  129 
36.  31572  PhD Saša Trkov Bobnar  Microbiology and immunology  Researcher  2012 - 2014  56 
37.  20214  PhD Nina Vardjan  Neurobiology  Researcher  2012 - 2014  243 
38.  14011  PhD Dominik Vodnik  Biology  Researcher  2011 - 2014  395 
39.  18290  PhD Polona Vreča  Geology  Researcher  2011 - 2014  671 
40.  28401  PhD Peter Železnik  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2011 - 2014  180 
41.  21137  Daniel Žlindra  Forestry, wood and paper technology  Researcher  2011 - 2014  159 
Organisations (4)
no. Code Research organisation City Registration number No. of publications
1.  0106  Jožef Stefan Institute  Ljubljana  5051606000  85,052 
2.  0404  Slovenian Forestry Institute  Ljubljana  5051673000  11,778 
3.  0481  University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty  Ljubljana  1626914  64,118 
4.  1683  Celica BIOMEDICAL  Ljubljana  1506854  1,706 
Abstract
Forests cover 4 billion hectares or 30% of the Earth's land surface and trees constitute about 80% of the world's biomass. Global climate change and other stresses and disturbances may weaken C uptake by forest ecosystems and reverse C fluxes from sinks to sources. The total below ground flux of carbon represents between 25 and 63% of gross primary production. A number of processes are neglected in the models, in particular the C input through hyphae of mycorrhizal symbionts and fine root turnover. These uncertainties are likely to severely limit our ability to make reliable predictions of how climate change will impact on ecosystem functioning. The structure of fine roots and associated mycorrhizas varies greatly in different species and sites and the relationships of structural variation to functioning is a new challenging research area. The ERM plays key ecological roles in ecosystem processes, including C flux through ERM, formation of soil organic matter (SOM) and effects on decomposition of SOM. National reporting manuals include the pool of C held in tree stumps and coarse roots but, to date, few countries have been able to report this or separate it from the dead-wood pool. Countries that are signatories to the UNFCCC and its supplementary Kyoto Protocol are obliged to report changes in carbon pools. Several models have been applied in different climate zones and forest types, yet all lack any specificity as well as the fine root and mycorrhizal mycelia turnover based C fluxes. There is an international need to improve knowledge and to develop high-quality tools for estimating biomass, carbon-equivalents and carbon fluxes belowground. Objectives: 1) To understand how mycelial systems develop under natural conditions, the extent to which season drives this, as well as their function in situ and at an elevated temperature and [CO2]. 2) To define the relationships of structural variation to functioning of fine roots and associated mycorrhizas, which vary greatly in different species and sites 3) To develop decomposition functions for quantifying the remaining dry weight of the biomass of litter, individual stumps and their associated coarse roots. 4) To provide an assessment of dead wood as a potential input for a general C dynamics model, and to develop an experimentally based soil module which could be applied for prediction of C dynamics in beech forest ecosystems. Our goal is to improve knowledge and to develop high-quality tools for estimating C-fluxes through different compartments in the soil and (myco)rhizosphere and contribute to more reliable C accounting at national and international level. Increased scientific knowledge to assess the belowground C pools and fluxes by measuring turnover rates for fine roots, mycorrhizal mycelia, and soil C stocks under elevated T and CO2 will be applied in development of relevant experimental models, as well as in supporting more specific general C stocks and C changes reporting systems at a global scale. The project coincides with technologies for sustainable economies, specially with energy and environmental protection technologies, use of new and renewable resources, maintenance and control of soils, forests, water and air, conservation of heritage, including the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) and the proposal for the Slovenian Act on climate change. The project activities will be organized in five working groups with defined scientific background, goals, methods and expected results: Mycelial turnover; Fine root turnover; Decomposition of wood and litter; Compilation of a databases for forest C dynamics models; Dissemination and management. The interdisciplinary and internationally based research team will consist of scientists from two research institutes, two groups from University and an SME, with collaboration of groups from Germany, Belgium and USA. The project will be complemented by existing PhD student projec
Significance for science
Carbon dynamics in forests soils are largely based on mycorrhizosphere functioning and complexity. Mycorrhizal fungi constitute a considerable sink for carbon in most ecosystems. This carbon is used for building extensive mycelial networks in the soil as well as for metabolic activity related to nutrient uptake. There is great uncertainty about the rate of turnover of EMM. There is increasing evidence that residues of EM fungi play a major role in the formation of stable N and C in SOM. We have reviewed methods to quantify production, standing biomass and turnover of extramatrical mycorrhizal mycelia (EMM) in the field, and highlighted the need to extend the application of current methods to focus on a greater range of habitats and mycorrhizal types enabling incorporation of mycorrhizal fungal biomass and turnover into biogeochemical cycling models. However, although ectomycorrhizal fungi play an important role in forest ecosystem functioning, they are usually not included in forest growth or ecosystem models. Simulation is hampered by two main issues: a lack of understanding of the ecological functioning of the ectomycorrhizal fungi and a lack of adequate basic data for parameterization and validation. Concerning these issues, much progress has been made during the past few years, but this information has not found its way into the forest and soil models. We have contributed to a better understanding of the EMM growth and functioning under elevated temperatures, as well as to the influence of environmental factors on fine root turnover.
Significance for the country
Inventory of emissions, identification and quantification of primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gases of individual countries is essential for tackling climate change. This inventory takes into consideration a) a comprehensive and detailed set of methodologies for assessing sources and sinks of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and b) a common and consistent mechanism that allows Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to compare relative contributions of various sources of emissions and greenhouse gases to climate change. For quantification, it is essential to know the turnover of functional components of forest ecosystems, such as decomposition of large woody debris, hives, fine roots and mycorrhizal fungi mycelium. These components were included into the development of a semi-mechanistic experimental model for the assessment of carbon dynamics in forest soils and mycorrhizosphere. Additionally, we have examined general models of carbon dynamics for specific conditions in Slovenia and finally proposed development of an evaluation system for carbon dynamics under the influence of changing weather conditions and patterns. These and additional project results on the importance of fine roots and mycelium turnover for assessment of carbon dynamics in forest soils, litter decomposition and large woody debris, assessment, testing and development of models to assess the importance of individual components of forest ecosystems, the impact of silviculture measures and climate change on the dynamics of carbon fluxes as well as contribution to the development of methods for reporting at different levels, represent a significant contribution to the implementation of system requirements and compliance of state obligations within forestry sector and other sectors associated with climate change.
Most important scientific results Annual report 2011, 2012, 2013, final report, complete report on dLib.si
Most important socioeconomically and culturally relevant results Annual report 2011, 2012, 2013, final report, complete report on dLib.si
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